S2 Geometry Library

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A unique feature of the S2 library is that unlike traditional geographic information systems, which represent data as flat two-dimensional projections (similar to an atlas), the S2 library represents all data on a three-dimensional sphere (similar to a globe). This makes it possible to build a worldwide geographic database with no seams or singularities, using a single coordinate system, and with low distortion everywhere compared to the true shape of the Earth. While the Earth is not quite spherical, it is much closer to being a sphere than it is to being flat!

S2 Features

Notable features of the library include:

  • Flexible support for spatial indexing, including the ability to approximate arbitrary regions as collections of discrete S2 cells. This feature makes it easy to build large distributed spatial indexes.

  • Fast in-memory spatial indexing of collections of points, polylines, and polygons.

  • Robust constructive operations (such as intersection, union, and simplification) and boolean predicates (such as testing for containment).

  • Efficient query operations for finding nearby objects, measuring distances, computing centroids, etc.

  • A flexible and robust implementation of snap rounding (a geometric technique that allows operations to be implemented 100% robustly while using small and fast coordinate representations).

  • A collection of efficient yet exact mathematical predicates for testing relationships among geometric primitives.

  • Extensive testing on Google’s vast collection of geographic data.

  • Flexible Apache 2.0 license.

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